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News:

ENVISAT Validation

Within the framework of the ENVISAT Validation project, the LPMA/DOAS balloon gondola performed successfully a flight from Teresina/Brazil on June 17, 2005. This flight was one of the first stratospheric balloon flights in the tropics carrying a large research payload (~500 kg). Its primary objective was the validation of the measurements of the MIPAS and SCIAMACHY instruments. For more information see SCIAMACHY Validation and Interpretation Group (SCIAVALIG) , German Contribution to the Validation of SCIAMACHY , MIPAS-Envisat site a IMK Karlsruhe or Official ESA Page.


Movie of the balloon launch on March 23, 2003 at Kiruna, Sweden (8.37 MB, mpg1): launch.mpg

 

Scientific Objectives:

Stratospheric research at the IUP-University Heidelberg concentrates on an improved understanding of the photochemical processes controlling stratospheric ozone. This aim is primarily tackled through direct Sun UV/visible/IR spectroscopy of stratospheric trace gases and the aerosol extinction during stratospheric balloon soundings of the joint French/German LPMA/DOAS (Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et Applications/Differential Optical AbsorptionSpectroscopy) gondola. For that purpuse, a suite of stratospheric balloon flights were undertaken since 1996. In the basic configuration the joint French/German balloon gondola accommodates an Fourier Transform interferometer (LPMA) operating in the near and far-IR and a DOAS double grating spectrograph which has been developed and designed at the IUP. In detatil the primary scientific objectives are (for details see publications...):
    the tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry and budget of bromine (BrO, Bry)
  • the stratospheric chemistry and budget of iodine (IO, OIO, Iy)
  • the stratospheric chemistry and budget of odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, HNO3, ClONO2)
  • the atmospheric aerosol extinction
  • the UV/visible actinic fluxes (JNO2) at large solar zenith angles
  • the spectroscopic data base for the O2-O2- collisional complex, the NO2 molecule, ...
  • the validation of remote sensing satellite instruments, such as
In addition to the existing instrument a light weight (2 kg) and low power consumming UV/visible spectrograph is under development that will allow us to probe the atmospheric (tropospheric and stratospheric) photochemistry on more versatile missions all over the globe.

 

Measured species by LPMA/DOAS:




Parameter
Instrument
Precision/

Accuracy

Validation

Height Range

SCIAMACHY Height Range
T
 
± 0.5 K
0 to 30/40 km
0 to 50 km
P
 
± 1 %
0 to 30/40 km
0 to50 km
O3
DOAS
± 0.5 %

1010 molecule/cm3

5 to 30/40 km
0 to 60 km
O3
LPMA
± 4%
5 to 30/40 km
0 to 60 km
O4
DOAS
± 4 %
5 to 30 km
0 to 25 km
NO2
DOAS
± 2.0 %

109 mole/cm3

5 to 30/40 km
0 to 40 km
NO2
LPMA
± 11.0 %
15 to 30/40 km
0 to 40 km
NO3
DOAS
± 10.0 %
5 to 30/40 km
20 to 40 km
BrO
DOAS
± 4.0 %

± 12.0 %

5 to 30/40 km
15 to 35 km
IO
DOAS
± 10.0 %
10 to 35 km
?
OIO
DOAS
± 10.0 %
10 to 35 km
?
OClO
DOAS
± 3.0 %

± 8.0 %

5 to 30/40 km
15 to 35 km
CH4
LPMA
± 7 %
10 to 30/40 km
0 to 40 km
CO
LPMA
± 7 %
5 to 30/40 km
0 to 35 km
N2O
LPMA
± 10 %
5 to 30/40 km
0 to 40 km
CO2
LPMA
± 5 %
10 to 30/40 km
0 to 60 km
HNO3
LPMA
± 15 %
10 to 30/40 km
-.
ClONO2
LPMA
± 15 %
10 to 30/40 km
-.
Mie extinction at different wavelength
LPMA and DOAS
± 15 %
10 to 30/40 km
-.

 

LPMA/DOAS balloon flights


SCIAMACHY validation

No Date Location Geophysical Condition Observation mode Products
1 Nov. 23, 1996
Leon, 42.6o N, 5.7o W
mid-latitude fall
ascent, sunset
O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, 
2
Feb. 14, 97
Kiruna, 67.9oN, 21.1o E
high latitude winter
ascent sunset O3, NO2, BrO, OClO
3 June 20, 97
Gap, 44.0o N, 6.1oE
mid-latitude summer
sunrise
O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, 
4 March 19, 98
Leon, 42.6o N, 5.7o W
mid-latitude spring ascent, sunset O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, 
5
Aug. 19/20, 98
Kiruna, 67.9oN, 21.1o E
high latitude summer
ascent, sunset/ sunrise
O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, 
6 Feb. 10, 99
Kiruna, 67.9oN, 21.1o E
high latitude winter
ascent, sunset O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, 
7
June 25, 99
Gap, 44.0o N, 6.1oE
mid-latitude summer
sunrise
O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, 
8 Feb. 18, 00
Kiruna, 67.9oN, 21.1o E
high latitude winter
ascent, sunset O3, NO2, BrO, OClO
9
Aug. 21/22, 01
Kiruna, 67.9oN, 21.1o E
high lat. summer,
ascent, sunset/sunrise
O3, NO2, BrO, OClO, 
10 Mar. 23, 03
Kiruna, 67.9oN, 21.1o E
high lat. spring ascent, sunset O3, NO2, BrO, OClO,  O3 miniDOAS, NO2 miniDOAS
11 Oct. 09, 03
Aire sur l'Adour, 43.7oN, 0.3o W
mid lat. fall ascent O3, NO2, BrO,
solar spectrum, OClO, 
O3 miniDOAS, NO2 miniDOAS
12 Mar. 24, 04
Kiruna, 67.9oN, 21.1o E
high lat. spring ascent, sunset O3, NO2, BrO, OClO,  O3 miniDOAS, NO2 miniDOAS, BrO miniDOAS
13 June 17, 05
Teresina, 5.1oS, 42.9oW
tropics ascent, sunset in preparation

 

Main technical features of the DOAS instrument:

Schematic Drawing of the DOAS Instrument

  • 2 grating spectrometers in one thermostated (273 K) and evacuated housing
  • Wavelength ranges and resolution:
    • UV (316 - 418 nm, Resolution: 0.5 nm)
    • Visible (399.9 - 653.0 nm, Resolution: 1.5 nm)
  • Cooled photo diode detectors (1024 diodes, T = 263 K)
  • Light intake: Solar tracker and glass fibre bundle
    Efficient spectrometer straylight suppression
  • Modi of operation: balloon ascent, solar occultation

  • Total mass: 45 Kg

  • Total power consumption: ~20 W

  • Target species: O3, O4, H2O, NO2, OClO, BrO, IO, OIO, and Mie extinction, solar irradiance
The balloon flights are conducted by the balloon division of the French space agency CNES (Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales). The French partner in our joint collaboration is a molecular physics institute at the University of Paris LPMA/Paris (Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et Application).

 

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